January 29th, 2014

AndroidTablet_Jan27_BAndroid is one of the most popular mobile systems available, with an increasing number of business users relying on Android devices, including tablets. There is a wide variety of Android tablets available, which users often download over 50 plus apps onto. With so many apps available, there is a chance that you will eventually install apps that do the same thing as apps that are already installed. If so, you might wonder how to change the default app on your device.

How do you set a default app?

When you install a new app that does the same thing as an already installed app, you will not usually be asked to make it your default app for that task. Instead, you should be asked when you first open the new app.

You can usually select between different apps that do the same task and confirm your choice. Take for example your email. If you install a different app than the email app that came installed on your device and open it, you should be asked if you want to make the latest app the default for email instead.

How to change the default app?

Because there are so many apps out there, we seem to follow a pattern where we use an app for a time then switch to another, either because we miss a feature, would like to try another app, or would just like to move back to one we've used before, etc.

Sure, you could just open the app manually, which is what many people do, but this can sometimes be tedious. The other alternative is to change the default app, which can be done by:

  1. Opening the Settings app on your Android device. This can normally be done by opening the app drawer and scrolling to Settings.
  2. Selecting Apps and scrolling to the app that is currently set as the default app.
  3. Tapping on it and scrolling down to Launch by default.
  4. Selecting Clear defaults.
The next step is to select the new app you would like to set as the default, and then open it. You should be asked whether you would like to make this the default app.

If you would like to learn how to get more out of your Android tablet, contact us today to see how we can help.

Published with permission from Source.

January 22nd, 2014

BCP_Jan20_BIt feels like the number of disasters striking around the world is growing year-on-year, or perhaps they are simply highlighted more in the media. Whatever the reality of disaster risks, many business owners and managers keep an eye on potential problems that will impact their companies, and have implemented some form of business continuity or disaster recovery plan. As 2014 is underway, many are wondering what disaster recovery trends to expect for the year to come.

Certain trends relevant to small to medium size businesses are vital for company leaders to be aware of in 2014:

Recovery will get even faster

When looking into recovery options, almost every company wants a solution that is as fast as possible. Recovery speed often depends largely on bandwidth and the storage method used. Each year, companies are able to access faster bandwidth connections and obtain more affordable, yet faster storage options.

In 2014, this trend is set to continue. Businesses around the world will continue to gain access to faster Internet connections and disaster recovery specialists will likely improve the speed with which they can implement a backup.

Many solutions will also be able to help businesses align or optimize their processes. ln turn, this will enable faster recovery and stronger protection. It's highly likely that with this combination you could see a business up and running again within hours instead of days.

Increased reliance on social media as a communications channel

During a disaster it can often be a challenge to communicate with employees and stakeholders. Traditional communication methods, like the phone, may not be working well, if at all, which make it more difficult for plans to be enacted. One alternative is to use social media to make contact and communicate.

Because most social media platforms are hosted in numerous locations around the world, they are hardly ever down. If you have an Internet connection, you can pretty much guarantee that you will be able to get a message out. Combine this with the fact that almost everyone has a social media account on at least one platform, and this proves to be a great option that allows you to reach people quickly.

We predict that in 2014 companies will realize this in higher numbers and begin to implement social media into their existing plans and even train employees on how to use this platform in an emergency situation where other communication lines are down.

Geographical based backup solutions

There were a number of high-profile disasters in 2013 that affected large areas. Some companies saw their backups and secondary backups wiped out because the location at which they were stored was situated in a disaster zone.

In order to have a truly effective backup solution, many experts are suggesting that multiple backups of data should be made and stored in multiple locations that are as geographically diverse as possible.

There is little doubt that businesses have learnt this lesson from the fate of either themselves or others, and will be implementing or looking for solutions that host backups in different locations more readily. In 2014, we predict that many providers will be marketing multi-location backups as a main feature. What this means for businesses is more secure backup and a higher chance of recovery when faced with disaster.

Growing reliance on managed backup solutions

As systems become increasingly complex they become more challenging for many small business owners to back up and manage at the same time. In 2014, there will likely be an increase in the demand for managed backup services.

These services are managed by an IT partner, who can not only help set up backup and recovery systems, but also support recovery after a disaster. The key here is that they give businesses of all sizes a way to implement a backup and continuity plan properly, at a fraction of the cost as was previously the case. We predict that small to medium businesses will take full advantage of services like this, and providers will begin to focus more on offering this type of service.

If you are looking for a backup solution, why not contact us. We may have something that will work for you. Give us a shout today.

Published with permission from Source.

January 16th, 2014

WindowsPhone_Jan13_BOne common feature that can be found on nearly every major mobile operating system is the ability to use your voice to interact with your phone. This is a great feature for users who can't interact with their phone, say when they are driving. With the release of Windows Phone 8 came improved voice control, which you may or may not be aware was also carried over to some apps.

If you have a phone running Windows Phone 8, there are apps that support voice commands. This feature is actually built into the OS through the Speech feature.

About Speech

By using the Speech feature on Windows Phone 8, you can use your voice to launch apps, write an SMS, call people and more. You can also tell your phone to open apps and even navigate to a part of the app.

To access the Speech feature on your phone, press and hold the Windows icon at the bottom of your screen and it should pop up. In the window that opens, you should be able to just speak your command. If that doesn't work, press the microphone icon, and you should see a message flash that says Listening…. You can then speak your command.

Some useful Speech voice commands

Here are five useful commands that you may find useful:
  1. "Call 'contact name'" - This will call whatever person you say from your contact list.
  2. "Redial" - This will call the last number you called.
  3. "Text 'contact name'" - This will start a new text message that will be sent to the contact you say. You can then dictate the the message without having to type it.
  4. "Start 'application'" - This will open the application you say.
  5. "Search for 'term'" - This will open your browser and search for the term you say.

How to tell what apps you can interact with using your voice

Not every app available on the Windows Store supports voice commands, and many don't actually tell you the app does support them. Luckily, there is a way to see which apps you can interact with using your voice:
  1. Pressing and holding the Windows icon on your phone until the Speech feature opens.
  2. Saying "What can I say?".
  3. Swiping right to the menu that says apps.
This will present you with a list of apps and pressing on each app will tell you what commands you can use while the app is open.

If you would like to learn more tips and tricks for the Windows Phone, please contact us today to see how we can help.

Published with permission from Source.

January 16th, 2014

AndroidPhone_Jan13_BThe smartphone is an amazing device that has revolutionized the way we communicate. However, it's technology that many of us accept and welcome without question, often forgetting that these devices are really just computers that fit in our hands. Like their bigger cousins, phones will eventually freeze or programs won't work properly. While this is rare with most devices, it does happen. If your Android freezes, do you know what to do?

If your Android phone or an app on the phone has frozen, here are two things you can try.

Frozen app? Try to force close it

Oftentimes when people say their phone has stopped working, the phone is running fine, it's an app that isn't working properly or which may have frozen completely. Because this does happen from time-to-time, Android has a built-in way you can force close apps when they stop working. This can be achieved by:
  1. Hitting the home button on your phone to go to the Home Screen (If you are in the app).
  2. Sliding down the notifications menu (slide from the top of your phone's screen) and tapping on the profile icon in the top-right.
  3. Tapping on Settings followed by Apps.
  4. Scrolling to the app that has stopped working and pressing on it.
  5. Pressing Force stop under the app's icon followed by OK.
These steps will close the app and usually keep it closed until you reopen the app again. However, some apps are essential and need to remain open in order for your phone to operate properly. If you are unsure of what an app does, don't force close it.

Did you try turning it off and on again?

There is a long-running gag on the tv show the IT Crowd where the techies in the basement answer every phone call by asking the caller if they have tried turning their computer off and on again.

While this may sound silly, and maybe even a little patronizing, restarting your device could be the solution it needs. In fact, many common errors are usually fixed by simply restarting your device. There are two types of restart you can execute:

  1. If you can still navigate your phone - Press and hold the power button for a second or two and the shutdown window should open. Tap on Power off and wait a few seconds. Your screen should go black and the device will be off. If you have low power, it may be a good idea to plug your phone in and charge it for a few minutes before starting your device up again. This type of shutdown/restart is the best because it allows your device to close all apps and stop all processes before it turns off.
  2. If your phone has frozen - This means you are not able to select apps and pushing the buttons does nothing. Android devices have different force restarts with most requiring you to hold the power button and volume down buttons for up to 10 seconds. Others require you to hold the power button and both of the volume buttons down. When the screen goes black, your device should switch off.
When a device has frozen, many people take the battery out - this should be an absolute last resort, as you could damage your device. If you can't remove the back cover of your device to get to the batter, don't try to remove it. Instead, try a forced restart. If this doesn't work, try plugging your device in and letting it charge for a few minutes before restarting it.

Should the device still not work, the best thing to do is to bring it to a mobile expert like us. We may be able to help you. And, if you are looking to learn more about your Android device, contact us today.

Published with permission from Source.

January 15th, 2014

SocialMedia_Jan13_BSocial media, while still fairly new, is starting to enter a more mature phase. Most businesses have a presence on one or more social media platforms and are comfortable with at least the basics. As we start 2014 however, social media is growing and businesses will find that they need to be doing more in order to be successful. One of the first steps to take is to know what trends could be popular in the coming year.

Here are five social media trends we believe businesses should track throughout 2014.

Successful content will become more helpful

One of the key rules of marketing is that you need to create content that is relevant to your target audience. If you can't show how your company, service or product will help the customer there is a high chance that they won't invest, or will look elsewhere.

Throughout 2014, we should see a shift of strategy with companies using social media to engage with customers to leverage data and create content aimed at being helpful to 'fans' and followers. This might include tips on how to use products and visual images that show fans how to use products, etc.

The key idea business owners should grasp is that they should not be using social media to promote their company, but rather using social media to help. When you can help your followers, you will see more positive association with your brand and possibly even more sales.

Planning ahead will become increasingly important

It used to be enough to simply have a social media account, but now you need to also be active. As more companies break into social media, you will need to post more content on a regular basis.

Because many managers and business owners are busy, they often lack the time to concentrate on social media, especially as demand grows. This means that companies will have to start planning ahead if they want to be successful on social media. What this means is likely hiring a new employee, or appointing a staff member, to run your social media activities. You will also need to schedule posts and content well ahead of time, as well as set budgets.

If you just post occasionally now, or have a profile that isn't that active, the first step you need to take is to schedule a day each week where content goes out. Take a look at older posts and see what worked well with your audience and create similar content. Schedule the content to be posted at roughly the same time each day. Over time, ramp up when you post - try posting new content on different days to see how reactions and interest changes. The key is to stick with it, and you will begin to see some positive returns - likely an increase in Likes, Shares and Comments.

Content will need to be mobile

It's not difficult to see that the mobile device - smartphone and tablet - has become the gadget of choice for many social media users. Some have even gone so far as to stop using social media on their computers entirely. This trend will grow throughout 2014 and what this means for businesses is that they need to be creating content that can be viewed easily on mobile devices.

Because mobile screens are smaller, and many companies are starting to create mobile oriented content, we should see some more visually oriented posts, including both movies and images. At the very least you should ensure that your content posted on social media platforms can be easily viewed by users on mobile devices and your other social related sites, like your blog, can also scale to fit on smaller screens.

Social data will play a key role in company strategies

As the number of users on social media continues to grow, we are starting to see a trend where many users are basically using social media for everything. Because these systems are online, data regarding nearly everything is being tracked and made available to companies and users. This social data can be a huge help if leveraged properly. For example, it allows you to see what users like and dislike, and the content that works best in certain regions, and different dynamics, etc. You can extrapolate this information to your products or services e.g., if post on how to use your product is liked more than other posts, you can assume that the product is seen to be good.

In 2014, companies will increasingly come to realize that they have access to this data and will start to use it to plot their marketing and social strategies. If you aren't already tracking your social data, now would be a good time to start. It will also pay to learn how to analyze it and develop useful insight.

Social integration is the next step

The first step in social media was to get users, including businesses, online and interacting. Now that this is happening, it's time to move onto the next step. For businesses this means integrating social media into their company. In 2014, that's what we predict we will begin to see businesses doing in larger numbers.

This trend has already started with businesses linking their websites to social media profiles but we predict it will go even further with companies integrating social data and plans into the organization as a whole. This will likely be the connecting of social data with other streams of data to make marketing and overall business decisions. In other words, social media will become an integral part of business.

What do you think the biggest social media trend will be in 2014? Let us know today.

Published with permission from Source.

Topic Social Media
January 7th, 2014

SearchIt’s very easy these days to lose items from your keys, your wallet to simple hats & gloves. Being separated from your technology devices is a little different and has many ramifications. Extreme care must be taken to protect and assure your devices are where you think they are. No-one really takes keys anymore or even a wallet. However SmartPhones are pricey and often sought-after items that predators can sniff out. It’s probably not a great idea to leave your devices in your car, especially out in the open. Always lock your car and close the windows. Don’t give anyone a reason to reach into your car.

With all that said, things will get lost or stolen. There are several devices, services, and apps that help to track down lost/stolen tech items. Mind you, there are no guarantees in life, but sometimes it pays to be proactive. If you’re willing to invest hundreds or even thousands of dollars on electronics, you may want a little insurance. Take your time and evaluate services such as LoJack for Laptops,, Lookout Plan B, Find My iPhone, Prey Project (Corp) and Carbonite Mobile just to name a few. I’m not here to endorse a particular product or service yet to relay the idea of using services such as these for your mobile devices. If you use your device for work (BYOD) your employer may offer you these as part of their package.

Roman Sawycky, Unicom Solutions Group, Inc.

January 7th, 2014

Facebook_Jan07_BSocial media has become an integral part of most business marketing strategies, and Facebook is the platform of choice for almost all. 2013 was a good year for many businesses with a quality News Feed and Page, as the platform saw a number of business oriented features being introduced, such as enhanced promoted posts and more Ads features. Now that we are in 2014, what will this year bring?

Here is an overview of five popular Facebook trends small to medium businesses can capitalize on in 2014.

1. Targeted auto play video ads

In early January, Facebook started rolling out their newest ad feature - auto-play of video ads. If you post a video, you can sponsor or promote it so that it may show up on a selected target audience's News Feed. When they scroll by it, the video will begin to play automatically - with the sound muted - if the user clicks on it, the video will open in full-screen and play with sound.

While video advertising isn't the newest feature, the ability to set your ads to auto-play is. While this feature is still in testing, open to a select few marketers for the time being, you can bet that this will likely become a full-feature some time in late 2014.

What this means for many businesses is that they will need to start creating higher quality video content. If you plan to use this feature, you should start looking into creating content that your followers enjoy. Try posting videos to see the number of Likes, Shares and Comments and from there tweak your content so that more users enjoy it and respond positively to it too.

2. The hashtag

The hashtag first saw widespread use among Twitter users and has since been introduced in almost every other major platform. Browse most people's News Feeds and you will see posts using the hashtag, which calls attention to the content and makes it searchable, (click on it to see other posts that have the same hashtag).

It is highly likely that the popularity of the hashtag, especially among companies with Pages, will increase in 2014 and beyond. If you are looking to integrate these into your content be sure to use them sparingly, as too many hashtags will make your content harder to read, and could turn readers away.

Instead, try using them to highlight one or two keywords you want people to focus on. You can also use one or two keywords each time you mention your company name, so that visitors associate a specific tag with your company. The biggest benefit to this is that it will make your other posts searchable and give users a quicker way to see similar content.

3. Increased ads from small businesses

Well over 25 million small businesses have a Facebook Page, a number which is sure to grow in 2014. However, the full number of how many of these businesses actually use Facebook's Ad client, which can place targeted ads in front of a categorized audience, is quite a bit lower - at roughly 1 million regular users.

This leaves 24 million users who aren't using the service - something Facebook undoubtedly sees as a great opportunity. Through 2014, businesses with Pages should see an increase in Facebook Ad marketing. The company is also working on ensuring that the ads companies promote are targeted at relevant profiles.

Facebook recently enhanced their Promoted Posts feature, which allows companies to pay to promote a specific post, with the hopes of it showing higher on people's News Feeds. With the recent change, companies can now promote content that is older than three days, potentially breathing new life into older content that was once popular.

The overall trend for small businesses is that you should see further improved ways of advertising and interacting with your clients on Facebook. You can be sure that the company will be targeting you with Ad promotions, which if acted upon could see your brand awareness and even sales increase.

4. Mobile-first content

The mobile device is quickly becoming the most talked about tech gadget - take a look at tech-related ads, they are almost all focused on the smartphone. As the demand for these devices increases, hardware manufacturers are working hard to develop mobile versions of just about everything. And following the hardware, is the software or app. It seems like every major Internet related site has an app these days, one of the most popular being Facebook.

In Q1 2013, nearly 70% (68%) of users accessed Facebook from a mobile device with 17% doing so exclusively. These numbers undoubtedly grew throughout 2013 and will continue to do so into 2014.

What this means for small businesses is that a large percentage of their users will be viewing their content on a mobile device, and small businesses need to start creating content that can be easily viewed on smaller screens. Try starting to come up with content that is centered around high quality images with small amounts of text, and grabs attention quickly. Ending with a strong call to action will also be beneficial.

5. Increased interactions with fans

The idea of social media is that it's a two-way street. For companies, this means that simply posting content on a News Feed won't cut it. You need to interact with your 'fans' in order to see any success with this type of marketing.

By interacting with your followers, you are showing that you do in fact pay attention to your social media profiles and are therefore listening to your customers. This makes the customer feel appreciated and will increase the chance of them staying loyal to your company. Take a look at the number of "Thank you" videos, or videos that give back to fans and customers like the WestJet video that went viral on social media shortly before Christmas.

It is content like this that customers love, and are eager to share. Companies are highly likely to be creating more content like this in 2014. If you can create something that thanks your customers, or even rewards them in a way they are happy with you should see some increased traffic, interaction and even calls.

Looking to learn more about Facebook and how you can use it in your company? Contact us for a chat.

Published with permission from Source.

January 3rd, 2014

iPad_Jan02_BWith the rise in popularity of tablets there are many different devices available for personal and business use, with one of the most well-known being the iPad. Because many users often have more than one email linked to their device, apps like Messenger - which allows you to send messages and texts to other users - often need to be configured so that you are able to send messages from and to the right account.

If you have a business email account and a personal account on your device you need to change which email address or account is used by Apple's Messages app.

Changing the email address used by Messages

  1. Open your iPad's Settings app.
  2. Tap on Messages which is located in the bar on the left.
  3. Select Send & Receive which is located to the right in the window that opens.
This will open your iMessages account list with your main Apple ID at the top of the window. There will also be two sections below You can be reached by iMessage at: and Start new conversations from:.

Under You can be reached by iMessage at: you will see your existing email addresses. By pressing on the blue arrow you can edit or remove the account which means instant messages and texts won't be sent to that account. If you would like to add an email account, tap on Add Another Email…

Under the Start new conversations from: section you can select which account to send new conversations from.

If you have questions about configuring your iPad, please contact us today.

Published with permission from Source.

Topic iPad
January 3rd, 2014

AndroidTablet_Jan02_BAndroid has become one of the top two mobile operating systems, and is arguably the most popular if you look at the number of devices it is installed on. In 2013 we saw a number of new high-end Android devices released along with two versions of Android and new Nexus devices. Will 2014 top this great past year?

So, what can we expect from Android in 2014?

1. Android beyond phones and tablets

We started to see this trend in the last quarter of 2013 with companies like Samsung introducing the Galaxy Gear smartwatch that syncs with your Samsung phone, along with cameras that run the operating system too.

While the smartwatch wasn't overly popular, the cameras that use Android are catching on. In fact, many companies, including Google, are actually developing other gadgets and devices ready for release in 2014. These will either run Android or sync with an Android device.

The other development to look out for could be the Google Glass. These wearable computers have been in testing by a select few users and the consumer version is currently rumored to be due for release in 2014. It is highly likely that Google will mention or even introduce them officially at their annual I/O conference, or a special conference in the early summer.

2. Wireless charging

The Nexus devices of 2013, Nexus 7 and 5, both came with the ability to charge wirelessly. If you purchase a small charging base e.g, Nexus Wireless Charger, that plugs into a wall socket, you can place the device on top of it and have it charge without having to plug it in.

We believe this will become a standard feature with most new devices released in 2014. Beyond that, it is highly likely that the efficiency of this method of charging will increase, making it more viable.

3. A new version of Android

It is pretty much guaranteed that there will be a new version of Android in 2014. Most believe that the next version released will be version 5.0, which will likely be an overhaul of Android. It's hard to say what will be included in the next version, but it's highly likely that the OS will see new features and even a new layout, perhaps one focused on making the system even easier to use.

If the most recent release of Android 4.4 is any indication, it is highly likely that the version Google releases this year will also work on older devices, which could encourage manufacturers to upgrade devices to the newer version.

4. Higher quality, lower costs

With the release of the Nexus 5 at the end of October 2013, Google showed that you can produce a high-end device at a mid-range price. There is a good chance that the big device manufacturers are working on devices that have powerful hardware and an affordable price tag.

This is already evident with many carriers offering phones that are not high-end price wise, yet have hardware that was considered bleeding edge last year.

5. Moving away from carrier-centric devices

Historically, mobile carriers around the world offered exclusive phones and went to great lengths to ensure other carriers didn't get to utilize these devices. With the release of more Nexus devices and Google Play edition phones - phones bought from Google, not from your carrier - we are starting to see the same devices offered by most providers.

This trend is likely to continue in 2014 and beyond, with the potential of users being able to pick their phone first then their carrier, not having to worry whether a specific mobile company will support their device or not.

6. Decreased fragmentation

The current nature of the Android market is that there is a wealth of devices running different versions of the system, which has led to a fairly fragmented market. You have devices released last year that are still running an almost two year old version of Android, and will likely not be updated.

Google appears to be taking steps to encourage developers and manufacturers to update devices. The first step taken was to ensure that the latest version of Android can be supported by older devices. This will likely continue with future versions of the system, and should result in more devices being on the same version of Android. In other words, the market should become less fragmented. This will be good for business users who need to ensure that devices are secure. Instead of developing solutions for each version of Android, they can develop a strategy for just one version, used across the board.

2014 will be an interesting year for Android, so be sure to stay tuned to learn more. If you have a question about how this system can fit into your office, please contact us today for a chat.

Published with permission from Source.

December 25th, 2013

BCP_Dec23_BA disaster can strike your business at any time and at any level of severity. These problems can also come in different guises, from something as small as the loss of yesterday's data, to as large as a disaster that damages your whole office. Regardless of the type of problem, your business should be prepared for any potential disaster. Two popular plans many companies institute at the Business Continuity Plan (BCP) and Disaster Recovery (DR).

What is a BCP?

BCP entered the mainstream just before the year 2000, with the Y2K scare. It's a plan that covers the way a business plans for and maintains critical business functions, directly before, during and after a disaster.

The majority of plans are comprised of activities that ensure maintenance, stability, and recoverability of service. The plan is typically set up on a day-to-day basis, and covers the whole organization. In other words, it's a plan on how to remain operational during and after a disaster.

The main reason companies implement a plan like this is because they wish to remain able to provide their service or product to customers. If something happens and you are not able to deliver to your customers, there is a risk that they will simply go to another company. This will obviously cause you to lose not only customers, but valuable income, some of which may be needed to further recovery.

What is DR?

Disaster Recovery is really more focused on what happens after a disaster. Many times, it's actually a part of the overall continuity plan. While BCP focuses on the whole business, DR plans tend to focus more on the technical side of the business. This includes components such as data backup and recovery, and computer systems.

It's best to think of a BCP as an umbrella policy, with DR as part of it. If companies don't have a DR component of their overall continuity plan, there is a good chance the whole strategy will be either less effective, or useless. On the other hand, DR can actually stand alone, and many companies can do just fine without a full continuity plan.

What should DR and BCP contain?

While these plans are slightly different, they do share the same common goals - to offer support and assistance during a disaster. Therefore, regardless of what type of plan you decide to adopt, there are common elements both need to incorporate in order to be successful.
  1. An operational plan for potential disasters that could happen in your geographical area.
  2. A succession plan for you or your top management.
  3. Employee training and cross-training. Your employees should know their role in the plan and be trained in other responsibilities should someone else be unable to perform their role.
  4. A communication plan that includes ways of communicating if networks are down.
  5. Off-site locations for staff and managers to meet and work.
  6. A focus on safety. Foster partnerships and communication with local and emergency response services. Ideally, all employees should at least know basic first aid. Employees who are members of local Emergency Response Teams make great team leaders.
  7. Daily backups of your systems and data. Be sure to also train staff in the testing and recovery of systems.
  8. Training and testing of all employees to practice recovery activities in realistic role-playing scenarios.
  9. Regular audits and updates of your plans to ensure they are still relevant and able to protect your systems and company.
With a plan that is carefully prepared, tested, and updated on a regular basis, you should be able to better weather any disaster. If you are looking for information on how to develop or improve your plans get in touch with us today.
Published with permission from Source.